Kharkiv or Kharkov is the second-largest city in Ukraine. Kharkiv is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast and of the surrounding Kharkiv district.
The city was founded in 1654 and after a humble beginning as a small fortress grew to be a major centre of Ukrainian industry, trade and culture in the Russian Empire.
Kharkiv was the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, from December 1919 to January 1934, after which the capital relocated to Kiev.
Presently, Kharkiv is a major cultural, scientific, educational, transport and industrial centre of Ukraine, with 60 scientific institutes, 30 higher education universities and institutions, 6 museums, 7 theatres and 80 libraries.
Its industry specializes primarily in machinery and in electronics. There are hundreds of industrial companies in the city, including the Morozov Design Bureau and the Malyshev Tank Factory ; Khartron ; the Turboatom, and Antonov .
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